Black Mambas venom contains powerful, fast-acting neurotoxins and cardiotoxins, including calciseptine. Calcoseptine contains 60 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and is one of the main culprits for the Black Mambas prey to stop pumping blood through its veins. If the victim does not receive medical attention, symptoms rapidly progress to severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath), and paralysis. Eventually, the victim experiences convulsions, respiratory arrest, coma, and then death. Without antivenom, the mortality rate is nearly 100%, the highest among venomous snakes. The venom of what some consider the fastest snake in the world is of special interest to the medical community and has been used in at least one pharmaceutical medicine called Calciseptine. The therapeutic value of the Black Mamba venom is said to be an inhibitor of cardiac contractions and a smooth muscle relaxant.
Although the inland taipan has the most lethal venom of any snake in the world, it is placid and shy. However, if cornered and/or provoked, it holds it’s body in low, flat, S-shaped curves with it’s head pointed straight at the disturber. It usually makes a single bite, or a few fast ones.
The Inland Taipan has neurotoxic venom that could potentially kill an adult human in 45 minutes. There have been no documented human fatalities; bites were treated using antivenom. The venom of the inland taipan is primarily neurotoxic, so bites result in overwhelming effects on the nervous system. This may include in rapid respiratory paralysis, and death. Although they are rarely encountered, because of their secretive life habits, these are truly one of the most dangerous snakes in the world. Taipans are ‘milked’ of their venom by getting them to inject venom into a jar through a rubber cover. The venom is used to make medicine to help save people who are bitten by a taipan. The procoagulants in the venom of the inland taipan are used to activate prothrombin to alpha thrombin. The anticoagulants are used to prevent interference of immunoglobins which interfere with phospholipid dependent in vitro coagulation tests.
Snake venoms have great potential for medical use because of the wide variety of compounds they contain and the specific action of each compound . Although no medical preparation derived directly from snake venom is used now in the United States , a few such compounds are used in Asia , Europe , and Latin America for treatment of blood disorders . Nowhere is a whole venom used as a medicine ; instead , specific components are extracted .
Beat-blockers-drugs widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases-owe their discovery to research on Bothrops venoms . These venoms contain a peptide that interrupts the activity of an enzyme involved in hypertension (high blood pressure) . Two analgesics derive from cobra venom : Cobroxin is used like morphine to block nerve transmission , and Nyloxin reduces severe arthritis pain . Arvin , an extract of the Malayan pitviper (Calloselasma) , is an effective anticoagulant (it inhibits the formation of blood cloths) .