andy chuksSINGLE COLUMN CASH BOOK
Single column cash book records only cash receipts and payments. It has only one money column on each of the debit and credit sides of the cash book. All the cash receipts are entered on the debit side and the cash payments on the credit side.
While writing a single column cash book the following points should be kept in mind:
The pages of the cash book are vertically divided into two equal parts. The left hand side is for recording receipts and the right hand side is for recording payments.
Being the cash book with the balance brought forward from the preceding period or with what we start. It appears at the top of the left side as "To Balance" or "To Capital" in case of a new business.
Record the transactions in order of date.
If any amount of cash is received on an account, the name of that account is entered in the particulars column by the word "To" on the left hand side of the cash book.
If any amount is paid on account, the name of the account is written in the particulars column by the word "By" on the right hand side of the cash book.
It should be balanced at the end of a given period.
The balance at the beginning of the period is not posted but other entries appearing on the debit side of the cash book are posted to the credit of the respective accounts in the ledger, and the entries appearing on the credit side of the cash book are posted to the debit of the proper accounts in the ledger.
DOUBLE COLUMN CASH BOOK
A double column cash book or two column cash book is one which consists of two separate columns on the debit side as well as credit side for recording cash and discount. In many concerns it is customary for the trader to allow or to receive small allowance off or against the dues. These allowances are made for prompt settlement of accounts. In certain business almost all receipts or payments are accompanied by such discounts and in order to avoid unnecessary postings separate columns in the cash book are introduced to record the discounts received or allowed. These discount columns are memorandum columns only. They do not form the discount account. The discount column on the debit side of the cash book will record discounts allowed and that on the credit side discounts received.
The cash columns will be posted in the same way as single column cash book. But as regards discount column, each item of discount allowed (Dr. side of the cash book) will be posted to the credit of the respective personal accounts. Similarly each item of discount received will be posted to the debit of the respective personal account. Total of the discount column on the debit side of the cash book will be posted to the debit side of the discount account in the ledger and the total of discount column on the credit side of the cash book on the credit side of the discount account. The discount columns are not balanced like cash column of the tow column cash book.
THREE COLUMN CASH BOOK
A three column cash book or treble column cash book is one in which there are three columns on each side - debit and credit side. One is used to record cash transactions, the second is used to record bank transactions and third is used to record discount received and paid.
When a trader keeps a bank account it becomes necessary to record the amounts deposited into bank and withdrawals from it. Fir this purpose one additional column is added on each side of the cash book. One of the main advantages of a three column cash book is that it is very helpful to businessmen, since it reveals the cash and bank deposits at a glance
Writing a Three column Cash Book:
Put the opening balance (if any) on cash in hand and cash at bank on the debit side in the cash book and bank columns. If the opening balance is credit balance (overdraft) then it will be put in the credit side of the cash book in the bank column.
Cheque/Check or Cash Received:
If a cheque is received from any person and is paid into the bank on the same date it will appear on the debit side of the cash book as "To a Person". The amount will be shown in the bank column. If the cheque received is not deposited into the bank on the same date then the amount will appear in the cash column. Cash received will be recorded in the usual manner in the cash column.
Payment By Cheque/Check or Cash:
When we make payment by cheque, this will appear on the credit side "By a person" and the amount in the bank column. If the payment is made in cash it will be recorded in usual manner in the cash column.
If an amount is entered on the debit side of the cash book, and the exact amount is again entered on the credit side of the same account, it is called "contra entry". Similarly an amount entered on the credit side of an account also may have a contra entry on the debit side of the same account.
Contra entries are passed when:
Cash is deposited into bank by office: It is payment from cash and receipt in bank. Therefore, enter on credit side, cash column "By Bank" and on debit side bank column "To Cash". The reason for making two entries is to comply with the principle of double entry which in such transactions is completed and therefore, no posting of these items is necessary. Such entries are marked in the cash book with the letter "C" in the folio column
Cheque/Check is drawn for office use: It is payment by bank and receipt in cash. Therefore, enter on the debit side, cash column "To Bank" and on credit side, bank column "By Cash".
Bank Charges and Bank Interest Allowed:
Bank charges appear on the credit side, bank column "Bank Charges." Bank interest allowed appear on the debit side, bank column "To Interest".
The method of posting three column cash book into the ledger is as follows:
The opening balance of cash in hand and cash at bank are not posted.
Contra Entries marked with "C" are not posted.
All other items on the debit side will be posted to the credit of respective accounts in the ledger and all other items on the credit side will be posted to the debit of the respective accounts.
As regards discounts the total of the discount allowed will be posted to the debit of the discount account in the ledger and total of the discount received to the credit side of the discount account.